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information about the current block the world try to mine

The world is concurrently trying to mine many different blocks which only have the block height and target (bits/difficulty) in common and therefore have a common prior block hash.

(I mean Version, Previous Block, Merkle Root, Time, Bits)

Although previous block and bits are common to all concurrent mining effort globally, version, Merkle root and time are things effectively chosen by individual miners (or pools) and therefore differ from miner to miner.

To get the target and the hash of the top block, you need to interrogate either a node that you run (e.g. Bitcoin core as vincenzopalazzo suggested) or a public node such as a blockchain explorer. Both have APIs but the APIs differ. There may be Python libraries you can use but which libraries you should use, if any, will depend on which source you select.

Bitcoin core’s API has functions useful for constructing block templates.

plus how many zeros we are looking for for the output of the hash!

None. Bitcoin does not ever consider the number of leading zeroes. Adam Black’s “HashCash” unimplemented proposal used number of binary leading zeroes but Nakamoto’s “Bitcoin” did something different though partially inspired by Hashcash.

The test in Bitcoin is a simple numeric comparison of hash <= target where the target is obtained by expanding the bits you mentioned before and recalculating the next value when appropriate (when block height is a multiple of 2016).

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